Fraud in science has a long history, with cases reported in the early part of the twentieth century. In 1989 the Royal College of Physicians established its working party on fraud and misconduct in medical research. It defined 'scientific' misconduct as including piracy, plagiarism and fraud. The terms of reference were to examine the history, cause, prevention and management of misconduct in medical research and to recommend the establishment of a mechanism for investigating allegations and dealing with the outcome.
This report was published in 1991.